Hypnodendraceae

This family contains many of the "umbrella" mosses which are often observed in the bush. They often form attractive clumps which catch the eye

Hypnodendron arcuatum

This one is often found in large groupings on banks and small stumps. It not very "umbrella-like" but is still recognisable as belonging to this group.

The seta (stalk holding the capsule) is arched, as shown in this image.
Hypnodendron colensoi

This species has a more distinct umbrella look than the previous one. It can form large attractive patches on banks alongside tracks.

It can be difficult to separate from some of the other umbrella mosses, but if you have access to a microscope, it is easy to see square crystals in the leaf nerve - a distinguishing feature for this species.

It also has a short stem covered in tomentum (a thick covering of rhizoids).

Hypnodendron comatum

This species is larger than the other ones shown on this page. It has a fluffy look to it. It has clusters of sporophytes as shown in this photo.

Hypnodendron menziesii

This one looks very similar to H. colensoi - I find them difficult to tell apart. However this one has a smooth stem, and no square crystals in the base of the nerve of the leaves.

Braithwaitea sulcata

This species doesn't have the umbrella form of other members of this family.

It is an epiphytic moss.

It is toothed on the back of the nerve.

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